What is IPV6 and why you need it
Consider the Protocol of a new type every year captures an increasing number of segments in the Internet. Its distribution is restricted to outdated equipment.
It’s the latter can support the work with a system of this type only after a major upgrade or not support it at all. This is the only drawback of version 6.
Why you need it
The system allows to provide each inhabitant of the Earth a large number of information resources (5×1028). This vast number was introduced to provide a certain hierarchy. Thus, significantly simplifies the routing.
There are some features that significantly simplify operation of the devices performing routing:
- the fragmenting of the data packets is no longer required;
- from completely excluded IP header checksum.
Due to the lack of the necessary slicing increases the processing speed. It is also one of the reasons for the introduction of IP v.6, its use can significantly reduce the load on network equipment.
With the exception of the checksum from the header (this reduces its length), eliminating the need for conversion when receiving the data packet. Which also has a positive effect on the speed of the Internet connection. Thus, it is possible to improve the overall data transfer rate by reducing the amount of information processed.
The presentation addresses
The IP consists of two major components:
- network number;
- the node number.
The recording format depends on which network it is used. If the network space is isolated from the global Internet, the administrator selects the IP from specially reserved range (10.0.0.0/8 or 192.168.0.0/16). In the case when the local network is an integral part of the Internet, the Protocol is determined by the current provider and appear in a different format.
A node number is assigned to a specific equipment, regardless of the location of the local node. Since the router simultaneously enters multiple network spaces. Each port is assigned its own symbolic code.
Entry IP can be in two forms:
The decimal method of representation is used only to simplify the presentation on the computer screen for user convenience. A binary method of representation reflects the actual form in the computer’s memory. The average length of IP is 4 bytes. So if you represent it in binary form, then it would be a 32-bit number of consecutive 0’s and 1’s.
IP address 126.96.36.199 after conversion to binary form will be as follows: 1000000 11000001 11010101 10011010. With this format you can easily identify the class.
It is characterized by the first digit in a binary number located in the beginning of the recording:
- class «A» — 0;
- the class — 10;
- class «C» — 110;
- class D — 1110;
- class E 11110.
Video: review of the Protocol
IP addresses in IPv6
There are several types of addresses v.6:
- unicast (Unicast);
- multicast (Anycast);
- multicast (Multicast).
Each has its own characteristics. A packet sent to unicast, always arrives exactly at the interface, which was sent. Anycast in their syntax are not distinguishable from Unicast. But unlike the first they are sent to a specific interface, and the whole group. Usually a packet sent to a specific device, is sent via the first interface according to the metric. Recognized Anycast routers.
Multicast is addressed to a group of interfaces. The data packet always reaches each interface present in the list. When recording the character code is displayed in the form of eight 4-digit hexadecimal numbers, they are separated by a colon. Each group contains four characters.
PC memory and type of hardware address as follows:
If there is a group, consisting of only zeros, you can replace it simply by a colon.
In IP v.6 are reserved for the group:
- fc00:: — replaces the Site-Local;
- fec0::feff – range marked as obsolete;
- fe80:to febf – analogue of 169.254.0.0/16 in the old standard;
- 2001:db8:: — used as examples for documentation.
Types and structure of addresses
The structure of v.6 can be very different. Also there are many different types.
At the moment, we can distinguish the following varieties:
Each has its own characteristics and purpose. In differentiation is the most important advantage over the older version 4.
Addresses, called Global Unicast are similar to public IP v.4. For the most part all IP v.6 belong to this class. They must be strictly unique across the Internet. They are issued by the regional registrars IANA. Next, the resulting character sets are providers. Those, in turn, give their clients.
The range of groups that are gaining symbolic component, have the first three bits equal to «001». These data indicate that the first hextet is in the range from 2000 to 3FFF. Thus from this group should be mandatory to allocate a network in which groups are used from the range 2001:0DB8::/32. He, according to the particular specifications of the Protocol used for the examples of documents.
Individual IP v.6 represents a particular interface within the same network segment. If the topology of the corresponding type, the data packets in the routing process are delivered to a specific interface.
An important feature of individual IP is the ability to use it to describe a group of interfaces. The router transmits data to perceive the whole group as a single device.
This feature is used to balance the load in the document RFC 3513. IP v.6 this type is divided into several categories of addresses:
- local intended for one channel;
- local intended for the network node;
- required for compatibility.
Each has its own purpose and features of operation. It is necessary to take this into account in the process of using various equipment. This is especially true of devices that are originally designed to work with IP v.4.
Special include Loopback, having the form ::1. All data packets sent to the device, not fall outside target device, and returning back to the level of the IP Protocol. Character sets are considered v the same. 4, which has the form of 127.0.0.1. Using standard ping ::1 you can easily check on the PC stack TCP/IP protocols.
The differences between IPv4 and IPv6
All employees of the IT industry, you need to know the difference between IPV6 and IPV4. A newer version of the Protocol has only positive differences from the 4th.
They should include the following:
- increased address space;
- the automatic configuration of addresses;
- broadband broadcast;
- reference address premises type;
- superior safety;
- network compact;
- the simplification of the operation of the network routers.
In a network with v.6 addresses are assigned automatically, without the use of additional services, there is no need for intervention of the programmer. It is possible to use broadband for the same subnet. In the new version of the Protocol used jumbogram. They allow you to increase the batch size to 4 GB. For comparison: in the v.4 uses packets with a maximum size of only 64 KB.
Special attention creators paid layer of security. IPsec implements authentication and encryption. With this option, the security of network data has increased significantly.
Use in the URL
IP v.6 can be used as a normal URL. To do this, just enclose the code in square brackets.
Looks it as follows:
In the end you can add a special ending, it will not confuse the port number
It is also possible to use a shortened version of the writing.
Due to the progress the network connection becomes every day more faster and safer, and the volume of transferred data is increasing. Perhaps this is due to the improvement of modern network equipment, and communication protocols. IP v.6 – the next big step in the world of high speed and unlimited Internet use.
Protocol new generation is a logical step in the development of the Internet, which is a consequence of high popularity. The IP Protocol v.6 makes it easy to provide fast switching of the user of any device.