What is a router

By | 10.12.2018

What is a router

This combined device, at the household level is used to create a home or office local area network with access to the world wide web for all connected PC devices. It is a kind of highly specialized mini-computer. Performs logistic and security functions.

If to speak a simple language is a device which independently no additional commands shall decide on forwarding of various packets (this can be as files – movies, games, documents, and Internet) between the connected computers.

Что такое маршрутизатор

These devices are different, but the standard switch is a compact device with integrated antenna, the hardware unit itself, cord and food.


Что такое маршрутизатор

The main thing is not to be confused with the switch are two different things. Let’s look at the difference between router and switch. With the help of a switch you can only create a LAN between several computers.

Since all devices that are connected to the switch must be of the same IP subnet address. The router can connect several of these networks together, from different IP addresses.


Their history is inextricably linked with the history of the Internet. First router created in 1974, and since 1976 of the three local networks with three routers there is a prototype of the «world wide web».

Что такое маршрутизатор

There are different levels:

  • the boundary is the boundary of the subscriber and the device labels;
  • marproviders;
  • routers of the core network.


Router is an external device, its manufacturer design seriously, we can choose for every taste. There are, however, common to all the design points.

The back side they looks like this:

  • WAN port 1, for connection to the Internet.
  • the switch to LAN ports, an average of 4 pieces is 8, industrial – 100 and more intended for connections on the internal network;
  • connector for power supply;
  • antenna or socket for them. Have a different number;
  • the power button;
  • button reset;
  • power button wi-fi;
  • USB port. Allows you to connect a printer or scanner. Model that support usb port, marked with the letter U. (Any user will be able to use this device, if connected)

The last 4 points of variability, may not be in all models.

Что такое маршрутизатор

On the face of the panel with the indicators.

On the lower side can be a wall mount.

Why you need a router

The idea of unification of local networks into a single global means creating the way will one of them find another. Thus, it is possible to compare the data ustroistva Manager at the gate: he determines who, where and which route to travel, and also checks entering invoices.

You need it if:

  • a few computers need to join the common network, for example,to create a computer class;
  • you want to distribute the Internet to multiple computers or devices.

Что такое маршрутизатор

Also, it can:

  • to establish a connection and to connect computers to the Internet. (previously you must have a S. a cable/ adsl modem, which is connected to the Internet through a local provider)
  • to protect your home or working group from various external threats.
  • to distribute ip addresses.
  • to control and to encrypt the traffic.
  • to regulate access to the network of users and visited resources.

If you bought the router and don’t know how to set it up, it is best to contact the experts.

Incorrect settings can lead to malfunction of the equipment and the signal is lost, but if you know English (because many switches are almost always in English) and wish to study for yourself, this manual will help you to understand the principle of work and answer many questions.

Video: wifi Router — what is it

The principle of operation

Routers are installed at the borders between networks. For internal use the routing table for external protocols, which are automatically distributed optimal traffic of information packets. At the same time protection and control.

Что такое маршрутизатор

The principle of operation of a router is fairly simple, but to understand everything thoroughly and without error, you need to study scientific papers and various books on networking. We will try to simplify the description so you can understand the principle of operation of the router.

All data on the Internet is sent in small, small portions of packages, and that they reached the right address, at the beginning of each packet of the marked delivery point (address). The router performs the function of a postman, he receives the packet, the internal routing table is the correct address (which is specified in the package) and he goes further specified in a table method.

Types and purpose modems

Release routers with different modems as the connection may occur through different channels.

Что такое маршрутизатор

  1. modems dsl, adsl, vdsl. Used if internet services are provided via telephone lines;
  2. cable modem. Provided for cases when the provider connects the subscriber with your cable «twisted pair»;
  3. fiber-optic cable, or optical fiber. under him available in separate routers;
  4. the leased line uses its modem form;
  5. mobile broadband. Used 3g modem for sim card.

Technological progress does not stand still and today on counters of shops you can find different types of routers, namely:

Что такое маршрутизатор

  • car is in very many buses, taxis for passengers, wi-fi. Using 4g or 3g modem to get Internet access, and by means of motor router he distributed to all the passengers.
  • for home groups – special switches for the house in which there are no extra settings and other unnecessary bells and whistles. Simplified and easy to use.
  • professional – for larger companies, which should not just combine multiple computers in a network and give them Internet, and to combine multiple networks into one group, and to combine them with another group of networks.
  • industrial – work in more difficult conditions. They are protected by the strong case, work is carried out in a wide temperature range, and their components are more strictly selected.
  • under the optical fiber for high-speed Internet on technology GPON.
  • broadband – to connect multiple computers to high speed Internet without loss of speed, or dividing the local network into several segments.

Functions and modes of operation

New items are equipped with increasingly powerful processors and high-tech system that makes work router a higher quality and speed.

Router combines multiple devices:

Что такое маршрутизатор

  • the network switch;
  • the wireless access point to the network;
  • router;
  • firewall;
  • a device that supports Protocol translation network address.

How it works, you can understand, having considered it more functions.

Что такое маршрутизатор

  • the network function.
  • through the switch office equipment «see» each other and can interact. Thanks to the DHCP server on the router constantly scans the network and assigns each member a temporary ip address for internal use, which facilitates and accelerates the exchange of data packets.
  • the external ip address provided by your ISP, is converted into a set of local addresses for your specific network. That means free access in the web with each connected device.
  • at the same time, through the settings you can limit the time and the addresses of sites visited separately to each participant of the network.
  • the switch is the first in a network, this allows the devices to access the Internet autonomously. You can turn off wifi, while wired devices access right will remain.
  • wireless connection. As wireless connection wi-fi uses radio waves, the presence of nearby appliances (e.g., microwave, cordless phone) interference. So there was dual band and even tri-band routers use multiple bands of radio waves in their work.

Long range wi-fi depends on:

  • the gain of the antenna signal, to apartment is 4 dBi;
  • transmitter power, optimally 15 to 18 dBM, 20 dBM is not recommended for use on sanitary-hygienic norms;
  • format wireless router and the receiving device;
  • The format of the wireless communication or the wireless communication standard is the speed of information exchange. Today, common is the format of the 802.11 g transmit up to 54 Megabits/s in theory, to 24Мегабит/s in practice. The next generation is 802.11 n at a speed of 300-600 Megabits/s. the newly developed format 802.11 ac speed up to 1.3 Gigabits/sec.
  1. the firewall function provides built-in firewall and a firewall. this masking (protection), block attacks and leaks. additional security is provided through encryption technology, wep, wpa, wpa2;
  2. placing calls through the web. with the switch you can connect analog telephone sets to the LAN and make parallel calls via the Internet;
  3. backup channel. the modem uses cellular networks if the primary port external connection suddenly disconnected;
  4. print server. this feature allows you to install printer drivers, scanner or multifunction device to the processor of the switch. thus, the function «print» is available to all devices on the network;
  5. mode repeater-repeater. used for signal amplification, is able to expand the coverage area;
  6. a torrent client. is built-in. but you can set yourself. allows you to download files from the Internet.

Advice summary and key points

Thus, with the switch you can create a local web, to give her access to the Internet and protect it from external threats. It is their primary function. The differences of routers associated with the technical connection options to the Internet, with the used standards and with the additional features and requirements.

Что такое маршрутизатор

Having considered, what are the characteristics of the routers, we can summarize the parameters that should guide you when choosing this device.

    • if you want to arrange a Wi-Fi area, then you need to choose a router with this feature.
    • find out what method is your Internet connection and consult your ISP about technical characteristics of a suitable router.
    • pay attention to the wireless standard. Does not make sense to buy a powerful device, if the connection speed to the Internet is initially low. And Vice versa. Your high-speed tablet will hang if the router lower wireless format.
    • for professional activities definitely need a commutator with advanced features.
    • based on demand, with a router you can even organize a wifi — bridge between the house and the country, for example. You can build a wi-fi zone in the area of 2000kv.m, with a well placed switch and amplify the signal.
  • under other equal criteria, choose a device with a usb port. This is an opportunity to connect additional external devices, such as a network drive.
  • if you decide to mount the router to the wall, focus on the level of the computer Desk.
  • the farther from the antenna the slower the speed. The more consumer wireless Internet the slower the speed. Consider this factor.

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