The impact of advertising on children’s psyche
Author: Dudarev Alina
Once the children quoted poems Agnes Barto and Sergei Mikhalkov, listening to bedtime stories, and watched the transfer of «Good night kids.» On a family holiday favorite, and, no doubt, a brilliant child put up on a stool, and began «Presentation». It has not been a lot of time and now the question: «Where have you been?», Children respond unequivocally: «Beer drinking!». The fat man, with whom «time flies» won the hearts of those who most beers do not even try
Indeed — the kids love to watch ads. As evidenced by a survey conducted by «COMCON Media» that it is the children from 4 to 6 years, not solvent adults continue to watch television during the broadcast of the ad unit. This kids account for more than half (52.4%) of the audience, which is calculated as advertisers. «Young children are especially attracted to the bright picture and a hilarious storyline, and only then the advertised product», — the representative of a research company. The older the child becomes, the less it looks advertising. According to information received, according to ITAR-TASS, if the age of 9 until the end of TVC inspect 44.8% of the children, then to 19 years — only 15.9%. Slightly more active youth audience from 20 to 24 years old — TV advertising look 18.2% of respondents. For what children like advertising?
But the opinion of children themselves are rarely asked, and when asked — usually expected of them, «right», «right» answers. And so it’s hard to tell what advertising does more damage to the child’s psyche. If you make a digression and recall childhood, the most harmful, I would have recognized the advertising «Whiskas» and «Kitiketa.»
Because all childhood I dreamed that I was allowed to have a kitten, but dreamed in vain. And every time I saw cats with friends or on the street, I was very worried. Then there was no advertising, but for many of today’s children adorable kittens promotional reminder of their own «mountain.» Childhood dreams are varied and often due to various reasons are difficult to implement and, therefore childhood defies statistics. And it is impossible to assess the law that is harmful to children. Moreover, children tend to try on different roles. And so the advertising of any product can be harmful, as well as any contact with the outside world of the child. Parents often criticized modern television, print media, the Internet. And advertising.
Advertising corrupting children and adolescents;
Advertising lowers the cultural level of the youth;
Advertising pushes children to buy alcohol and tobacco;
Advertising makes you want to possess the goods that the family can not afford.
This is just the beginning of an infinite number of complaints about the ads. With their full list can be found on websites: https://r-komitet.narod.ru and https://www.moral.ru. These sites can be called an anthology of human stupidity. You can, of course, prohibit the advertising of «Barbi» and «Lego», but you can not ban a product. And no advertising children want to have expensive toys, harmful drinking cola and so on. But if viewed advertising as a negative factor, then here it is possible to carry and fairy tales. Magic Wand, seven-league boots, magic tablecloth, magic carpet, living water. … The list is endless, and even the most affluent parents can not buy your child anything from this list. And yet — Russian folk tales actively promote laziness. And any self-respecting heroine contacting the white dove, runs away from home to a good fellow, in spite of strict parental prohibition. But children continue to read fairy tales. Russian folk tale is a topic for another discussion. Now we will focus on tales and the game as a way to children’s knowledge of the world and adapt to the social roles. After all child ads, primarily the simplest model of love to society. The reason for this was several factors:
First — time and money. Advertisement — rather expensive and the price the advertiser is not conducive to lengthy discourse on this product. How can succinctly explain the essence, that’s his goal. Consumers do not have time for lengthy discourse on this product. And his goal is to get as much information in a short time. Advertising informative, and easy to remember. And the children memorize it more easily than adults, because their head is not clogged with different information.
Secondly — the frantic pace of the modern metropolis. Parents do not have time to raise their children. For many explanations child, what is good and what is bad parents do not have neither the time nor the energy. Adults are accustomed to short chopped phrases, and children under them adapt. And think slogans, as once helped to save time and proverbs.
The third — the person can save power, including mental. Proverbs, sayings, slogans, advertising it dies, stereotypes. Mercedes is cool with Fat Time flies, etc. Slogans categorical. And it leaves no room for endless childhood «WHY?».
Because of the employment of parents a child can not be in the right amount to copy their behavior in different situations. Tales for children, too, rarely read, and often free time parents spend not to communicate with children and to rest. They want peace and quiet, and the kids are looking for something that will help them find themselves. Advertising is, as a simplified scheme of behavior helps a child to develop. The child is always «possessed» a grown man and in this game and help him tales. In fairy tales, children are offered the solution of what is right and what is not, and what to do in certain situations. Through play, children develop their own script behavior. And advertising on the perception of the child — a synthesis of games and fairy tales. Heroes commercials are simple and linear, they are devoid of nuances and their desires and actions are understandable to the child. DB Elkonin The book «The Psychology of the game,» says that the game story is more common in children younger than seven years, and is virtually absent in older. Boys often played action games than girls, so the girls earlier than boys are included in the labor process, helping around the house. This is understandable, the girls from an early age and more of certain critical activities than boys. But until then, while the children play, they take over the lot in advertising characters. «Good housewives choose» Gloss «,» Nuts charges brains «, glazed curds» Red AP «- for children of spyware and so on.
But all these children are harmless and drawing nothing worse than playing in a summer lightning or war. You can not demand from the children to quietly and calmly sat on a bench and read books. The game is for the child, as if he did not seriously treated her — just a game and it is not going to carry all the models in real life.
In addition to the game and graphic activity in preschool age activities also becomes the perception of fairy tales. K.Byuler called preschool age tales age. This is the most favorite child literary genre. Sh.Byuler specifically studied tales role in child development. According to her, the heroes of fairy tales are simple and typical, they are deprived of all individuality. They do not even have a name often. Their characteristic confined to two or three properties, understandable children’s perception. But these characteristics are communicated to the absolute degree: an unprecedented kindness, courage, resourcefulness. At the same time the characters of fairy tales do all the things that ordinary people do: eat, drink, work, marry, and so on. All this contributes to a better understanding of fairy tales child. B.M.Teplov, considering the nature of artistic perception of the child, pointed out that empathy, mental assistance to the hero product of «living soul of artistic perception.» Empathy is similar to the role that takes the child in the game.
El’konin emphasized that most closely matches the classic fairy tale character of the effective perception of the child of art, it is planned to track the actions to be undertaken by the child and the child is on this track. Where this route is not present, the child ceases to understand it, as, for example, in some tales G.X.Andersena, where there is a digression. Child psychologist and psychiatrist Bruno Betelheym written a remarkable book, «The usefulness and value of a fairy tale,» B.Betelheym compares the tale with a story from real life and come to a paradoxical conclusion: the realistic story, especially if it has a causal explanation is psychologically implausible for a child because he does not understand them. And here again, the analogy can be seen from the advertisements, commercials reproach characters in the complexity of the characters and scenes in complexity. But perhaps what most attracted to the baby in the advertising — it is positive, overflowing. Heroes are friendly, courteous, members of the advertising semeek do not yell at each other and the children.
For example, juices rollers «My family.» Children of parents awake in the middle of the night, the kitchen is filled with popcorn, but parents only smile and sigh. And it is not surprising that such a model of behavior attracts the child. That is, in fact — the enthusiasm of children advertising has its roots in the family, and is compensatory in nature. And so the criticism is unfounded advertising. More Sigmund Freud called a key aspect in the formation of human personality. This is not advertising. Everything begins with the family, with the fact that parents could give their children. And the desire to protect children from the harmful effects of advertising, television, the Internet is just the result of the fact that parents do not pay enough attention to the children, and can not cope with their responsibilities. These people include the black list of bad friends and stuff, stuff, stuff.
Because people rarely dissatisfied with limited exposure of Evil, the world of rich and diverse in what must be fought by all means. And they so zealously protect people from their delusions that they were willing to burn at the stake a dozen of the other …. Holy Inquisition is alive and present in the soul of these figures. They hate advertising and those it invents, manufactures, and those who admit «this mess» on the air and on the publications page. But none of them cursed the founders of what you are promoting. This — the paradox of the human psyche. Enjoy the benefits of civilized society all want, and pay for it, no one wants. And the parents who want to protect their children from the harmful effects of advertising and other realities of modern society, do not realize that these are hindering the development of their children. Maybe in some ways they are right, and advertising is really develops the desire to own the maximum number of benefits.
But, on the other hand, the desire to own leads naturally to the fact that we have to work. And if the child does not understand, it’s a fault of parents, not society, and certainly not advertising. Moreover, the age at which a child needs to know that we have to work is not twenty or even ten years. I remember in kindergarten classes on the theme «What I want to be when I grow up.» And I remember that the four year old brother of my friend said, «When I grow up — I go to work and buy television» Horizon «. So he decided that everything advertised, gets free, and does not even collect the money stolen. And, if we talk about the harmful effects, the tale «In Pike» is more detrimental to the child’s mind, because it teaches that everything goes to waste. There are parents who believe advertising expensive toys unethical because they can not afford to buy themselves. But then again — moreover ad here? It may sound cynical, but if you are not able to provide your child what he needs, including a good toy — do not have children. Children — an expensive pleasure. Even in the animal world the offspring acquire the strongest individuals, is the key to development. Again, the lack of advertising does not in any way solve the problem, because there are shops, and even other children whose parents are able to provide them a decent life. And if someone «Chupa Chups» a luxury — it is necessary to actively explain to children that there are things more important than good toys, clothing, books, etc.
It is also accused of advertising propaganda narcogene funds. Some public figures argue that the advertising of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes makes young people smoking and drinking. Indeed according to the Institute of Developmental Physiology 60% of younger students evaluate the content of advertising pronarkogennogo — beer, alcohol and tobacco — as «positive.» The bulk of respondents — 80% — said that the outdoor and print advertising pronarkogennogo content corresponds to the «joyful», «cheerful» mood. About 70% of respondents said that samples of anti-tobacco advertising and nicotine cause negative reactions to children «terrible», «disgusting», «unpleasant». But if a sober assessment of the situation, there is nothing surprising in this. Commercial advertising appeals to simple human emotions and joys. Dinner parties, picnics, holidays, humor, chat with friends, in fact, mean life. If we recall Freud’s — any human desire for joy, let momentary and sometimes fatal is none other than the desire to overcome the most ancient of fear — fear of death. And the reason that all «anti» cause of rejection — are obvious. Nobody wants to think about the fact that «a drop of nicotine can kill a horse.» But officials from the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health, responsible for promotions, forget about it. How to forget about the fact that children and adolescents are prone to break taboos and to act in defiance of an adult.
Children do not like boring lecture. Kids love games. Children love fairy tales. And those who make orders and advertisements should be aware of this. Although, if only because children are omnipresent. And because adults manipulate the concept of «childhood» as they want. You can raise and lower the age limits. When it comes to children’s allowance, the childhood ends at 16. But you can not sell alcoholic drinks to 21 years. And these temporary dips in our legislation are many. Although it would be logical to establish a single bar. Children are very sensitive to lies in all its manifestations. And much smarter than they think about parents, teachers and other «elders.» Indeed, according to the company «Business Analytics», dedicated to the study of the beer and tobacco consumption narcogene market funds in the country is really high. About 20% of adolescents between 13 and 18 years in Russia smoke. But they smoke are three times less than adults. There are frightening figures. For example, the RIA «Novosti» reports that «the Minister noted that, according to a recent Monitoring the younger generation annually drinks about 1 billion liters of alcoholic beverages, including beer, and the number of smokers in the age of 15 is 16 million people, and more than half of young people in this age. » And as reported by ITAR-TASS, «according to research, discotheques to drugs attached 1 in 10 adolescents in educational establishments — 1 of 6, and on the street — about 70% of the children.»
But the cause is not advertising, first of all, it — financial difficulties in dysfunctional families, the share of which in Russian society today is 30%, and «weak leisure activities for adolescents and young adults.» And «the annual cost of Russian youth to drugs, cigarettes and alcohol in a 5 times higher than government spending on higher education, and reach $ 7 million, according to Filippov.» But if the situation soberly assess, then again, the role of advertising is that adolescents smoke and drink alcohol, is negligible. There are products that are not advertised at all, such as «Ecstasy», «Heroin» and other drugs, but there are people that they are used.
Therefore, to say that advertising causes irreparable harm to our children, at least unfair and not very smart. Just adolescence during experiments and riots. According V.Shternu, puberty is characterized not only the special focus of thoughts and feelings, aspirations and ideals, but also a special course of action. V.Shtern describes it as an intermediate between the child’s play and serious activity responsible adult and selects a new concept for him — «serious game». Teenager, he said, looking with disdain at the famous children’s games; with a toy, until recently very favorite, he does not want to have anything to do. All of it is taken, is serious, as his intentions are very serious.
Examples of serious games can be games of loving nature (flirting, flirting, dreamy worship); choice of profession and preparation for it; sports and participation in youth organizations. Young people should be eternally seeking, knowing that he is looking for, or have to look for. Central neoplasm occurrence of age presenting himself as «not a child»; teenager starts to feel like an adult, and aims to be considered an adult, he rejects their belonging to the children, but it does not yet have a sense of genuine, full-fledged adulthood, but there is a great need for recognition of his adult life around. And so the children and young people are beginning to copy the behavior of adults. Moreover, the social and intellectual maturity is influenced not abstract adults, and those who are always on the mind of a child:. Parents, teachers, etc.
Of course, there is a place and an imitation of the stars, but it should be noted that Russian teenagers mainly imitate the actors Western and in advertising Russia, they are not removed. In the late XIX — early XX centuries the form and function of imitation in childhood and adolescence has been viewed by many scientists. Among them, G. Tarde, E.Torndayk, J. Watson, R.Vudvorts and other major psychologists. In domestic psychology a lot of attention paid imitation P.F.Kapterov, IMSechenov, K. Ushinskiy. Later the role of imitation in child development has been the subject of reflection and empirical research 3.Freyda, J.. Baldwin, P.Giyoma, Piaget, A.Ballona. It has been found that imitation — a form of behavior that is continuously changing, and makes an important contribution to the formation of intelligence, personality of the child helps him to learn the rules of social life. A particularly large place is given to simulate theories J. Baldwin, Piaget and A.Vallona..
These researchers noticed that the imitation as a form of child behavior consistently changing and evolving: role models become more complex, increasing the accuracy and speed of play, the frequency imitative acts. J.. Baldwin distinguished stage simple and persistent imitation. Piaget described the sporadic and systematic imitation, imitation of the pattern and presentation. Stage copying, imaginary and reflect imitation singled A.Vallon. He also emphasized that the imitation of children associated with the movement, with a reproduction of the model in the external, material form. It was noted that imitation arises on the basis of special affective relationship between child and adult (3.Freyd, A.Vallon). Imitation promotes social development of the child. . According to G. Tarde and G. Baldwin, it helps to learn the traditions and norms of society; It provides a «soaking» the environment at the earliest stages of ontogeny. Imitation is seen as a way of formation of the personality of the child.
In psychoanalysis, the identification of the child with the parents, which manifests itself in imitation of them acts as a way to the emergence of new structures in the child’s personality. Imitation of the other person is there a way to know this other, and at the same time form an idea about itself, its capabilities, in the process of imitation in a child produces arbitrary regulation of behavior (J. Baldwin, Wallon). Piaget and A.Vallon noted a significant role of imitation in the development of the child’s intelligence: the ability to recognize a representative derivative of sensorimotor simulation; adult imitation is seen as a form of motivation, not associated with the satisfaction of organic needs, as an inexhaustible source of initiatives, new skills and knowledge. The model is characterized by high levels of prestige, authoritativeness, socio-economic status or awareness, it will simulate more likely. Also, have a value of gender, age, ethnicity model, the nature of the relationship (emotional sign cooperation activity) between a child and an adult.
Adulthood — this is what children seek. Types of adulthood T.V.Dragunavoy isolated and studied. Among them — the imitation of the outward signs of adulthood. This is — smoking, playing cards, drinking, custom vocabulary, the desire for adult fashion in clothes and hairstyle, cosmetics, jewelry, receptions flirtation, relaxation techniques, entertainment, courtship. This is the easiest way to achieve adulthood and the most dangerous. This cognitive interests are lost, and develops a specific setting to have fun with the corresponding values of her life. Imitation particular style fun, easy life, sociologists and lawyers called the «low culture of leisure» and associate it with the economic and social situation of the family and the relationships of its members. Of course, the children secured and highly educated parents also found children using narcogene drugs, but they lower the level of involvement in illegal activities.
The negative effects are reduced due to the fact that the financial capabilities allow them to receive a good education, go to the theater, museums, night clubs, travel. But again, the consumption of substances narcogene not caused by advertising, and, above all, their immediate environment. And if we ignore the hypocrisy and moralizing, that smoking is not the first enemy of health for residents of large cities, and the use of the Russians, even teenagers, are not the biggest problem. At a school dance teachers are struggling with a strong drink, advertising that is not on our TV. Simply put, children see that adults on a family holiday tradition of drinking vodka and trying not to break. So beer ads may be useful. Suddenly teenagers switch to this drink?
Summarizing all the above can be said:
The children are loved and well remember the advertising because, in fact, a synthesis of games and fairy tales. Advertisement speaks the same language with the child;
children dream of expensive toys, because they see them in the store and the other children, but not because they saw the ad;
the nervous child system have a negative impact can any element of any advertising, such as a kitten, puppy or hedgehog on which the child is dreaming, and a friendly atmosphere in the advertising family,
anti-smoking, anti-alcohol and any «antivrednaya» advertising overloaded tips and stories about product dangers, children and adolescents frightens and repels;
children begin to smoke and drink alcohol before than the statistics, with actively advertised beer in a number of drinks consumed thing quite harmless;
First of all, the child imitates the nearest adult or trying not behave as they do. Income and social status of the family, how to spend their leisure time, family relationships is what has an impact on children. Advertising plays a minor role.
And the society, school, media, pop music, advertising and other factors only complement what is laid parents. And, if we talk about the dangers, our advertising suffers from «children’s issues» over-exploitation, but on the whole operation of this innocent, innocuous and harmless. Although there are exceptions. I’m talking about advertising soup «Gourmania» Mars company (creative agency BBDO Moscow) and I wanted to look at who is the author of one of the rollers.
The girl goes on an apartment in the big shoes. Hales large teddy bear in the kitchen. Climb up to the big chair. Instead of small plates takes a lot. Voiceover: «gigantomania?» On the screen — the soup in the package. Voice-over: «No! Gourmets. The country has covered the new craze. Finished soups «gourmets» so delicious that you can lose your head. Good to madness. » Girl eating soup from a large dish
I’m not going to comment on this video, the picture speaks for itself, especially in this roller I came exclusively subjective. But visuals reminiscent of the books of Sigmund Freud.
Children, including in connection with advertising, multi-faceted topic and bottomless.