Structure and types of URLS
All pages posted on the Internet have your hyperlinks. So the URL is the main component of all the sites, without which use of resources is simply impossible.
In this case, you should understand what is a URL and why do you need this item. It should be noted that it has a certain structure and few parameters. A detailed description is given below.
What is the URL
URL abbreviation can be deciphered as a Uniform Resource Locator. This phrase literally translates as uniform resource locator. In addition, it is called uniform locator or universal resource locator. The pronunciation sounds like «Yoo-ar-El» or «er-El». The abbreviation is often colloquially pronounced as «URL».
Invented uniform resource locator Tim Berners-Lee. It happened in 1990 in Switzerland. On this project, Berners-Lee worked within the walls of the European Council, specializing in nuclear research.
The URL was a breakthrough in Internet development. Initially, a uniform resource locator used to identify places where resources reside, as a rule, files on the network. At this point uniform locator required to specify addresses. Thus it applies to almost all resources on the Internet.
The General structure
Understand the details of what constitutes the URL. You can also say that this is the path to any file.
It may be like:
- text document;
This address is assigned to all documents located on the Internet. Using the uniform locator, the server provides access to the stored files to all network users.
There is a special standard that should look Uniform Resource Locator to any document.
This template is used to access:
- to various files and websites on https and http;
- to transfer data to the portal via ftp.
In addition, the URL address has a specific structure that consists of several main parameters.
Each of these parameters is an important component of targeted links.
They all have their value, namely:
- scheme is the Protocol to transfer information. With it you can access the desired resource.
- username and password – they are necessary in order to correctly identify the right user for access to a specific page of the Internet portal. In the http Protocol, this information is not specified.
- the dog is a symbol that represents @. The dog is usually specified together with the username and password.
- the host is a domain name. Rarely, it can be the IP address of some resource to which the user needs to access.
- port – this parameter is indicated only rarely. When the user accesses the portal or any other file that is available on the website immediately assigned a certain value, usually 80 or 8080.
- URL path – the path to the location of a particular file.
- the options follow immediately after the name of the file written after the question mark (?). To separate these parameters, use the ampersand (&). It may look like this:
Options may be several. Using server-side programming language, they are processed in the system.
- anchor is a special string that can include both alphabetic characters and numbers. Using anchors refer to a specific place on the website that opens. This allows the user to get to the main page of the portal, and immediately to the right place. The anchor is a uniform locator immediately after the pound sign (#).
Encoding the URL
For URLS, as a rule, use a variety of encodings. If transcoding is possible, you can use only the designated number of characters.
For this purpose:
- the numbers from 0 to 9;
- lowercase letters from a to z;
- capital letters from A to Z;
- including: [ _ ];
In order to avoid errors, files posted on the website must be called in lowercase. Also, the path should be specified in the same way and write it in small letters.
Encoding data into numbers, letters and signs Latin alphabet, associated with the fact that the physical device is limited in the transmission of characters. Therefore, they can only recognize alphanumeric characters.
In Uniform Resource Locator, similar encoding is used to transmit characters that are originally in Unicode format (UTF-8) into a sequence consisting of two bytes. After that, they will be written in hexadecimal. That is, this method is valid only for Russian letters.
In order to separate each byte is used the % sign. Using this encoding, the string «book» will take the form of, such as %D0%BA%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%B0. Thus, the letter «K» corresponds to the character sequence %D0%BA. Such encoding is always used in order to specify the path in the URL to documents, folders and various files.
For example, this link:
Is converted to this:
The use of CNC
This kind of is an extremely uncomfortable and confusing to read. So in such cases used CNC router URL. In other words it is human-friendly uniform locator.
When human-readable Uniform Resource Locator of the words contained in the link, will translit. That is, Russian letters are converted to their counterparts, but only in Latin. To do this, use the method of comparison. As a result, each initial letter will be chosen few or one character in Latin.
Such links formed by the method of transliteration will be performed according to special standards.
Of them exist:
- ISO 9-95;
- GOST 16876-71.
Between them, almost no difference is observed. However, there are some differences. For example, the Russian letter «x» when using ISO 9-95 is converted to «x» — IKS. This same letter when transliterated using GOST 16876-71 will be of the form «h» — ash.
We apply the method of transliteration for photographer.ru/все for the photographer
As a result, it would be:
Dynamic uniform locators
There are also URLS that are called dynamic.
In such a common signs of a resource can be present are valid characters in the address as:
- a «?».
They are necessary in order to create a parameter structure address. Such URLS are formed because of the scripts that are available on the Internet portal. Dynamic links can look like:
If the url contains an anchor, it will have this view:
Thus, the row formed another parameter #231razdel, the so-called anchor. With such work, the creators of the sites and content. Anchor allows you to be in that part of the portal, which indicates this option. Like Uniform Resource locators are often used for pages, which contains a large amount of information for easier navigation.
Canonical address references
Canonical URL is used to optimize ranking of sites with similar or even identical content, which are at different addresses.
It often happens that one page has several different URL addresses.
Such resources can be:
- online shopping;
- portals, where there is an automatic data management system.
Duplicate universal resource locators is due to the distribution of content. This means that the same material can be found in different references.
Generally, duplication occurs for the following reasons:
- addresses of the pages which is one and the same product can differ if they were created in different sessions or by different queries in a search engine;
- the blogging system is installed, which contributes to the conservation of several different addresses for a single message if it has been posted several times in different sections;
- the server automatically displays the same content for https or www subdomain;
- if the blog is a message which applies to other resources.
Video: the Term URL
Relative and absolute links
An absolute link must have a standard form URL. There needs to be:
- the Protocol used for the transmission of information;
- the domain name of the resource;
- the path to the required file.
Such links are used when there is a need to refer to the external Internet portals. For transitions within the resource there are relative links. They are shorter and don’t weight and don’t clutter up the main code of the website.
How to make a URL link
Consider an example of how to create a universal resource locator for the blog.
Before you create a blog, you need to come up with a unique name. In order to go into it the visitors will have to enter this URL in the address bar of the browser.
Tips how to create a link:
- the address should look something like this:
- choosing a uniform locator, it should be remembered that use it:
- only numbers;
- alphabetic characters;
- because on this site there is already a wide variety of blogs, the address selection will require time and creativity.
In case if there is a need to change the URL-the link it is recommended to do the following:
- log in to your personal account on the portal blogger.com;
- to get to Settings;
- click on the Main;
- in the «blog Address», you can make the desired changes;
- followed by all save.
If you change your address it is worth remembering that the old link is released and it can be used by another user.
In the article, it was found that represents a uniform resource locator. It was also given its description and application.