Influence of gender stereotypes in the selection of actors in advertising
Author: Alina Dudarev
Published: July 14, 2004
«Advertising is not possible without actors. His charm (sometimes, however, a negative) they give the advertised product or service. It is with their intonation we repeat advertising frazochki (often silly). »
«Oh, Bull’s» №4, 2001
Recently, the Russian advertising interest in psychology is consistently high. Knowledge of the laws of perception not only helps to increase the effectiveness of advertising, but also easy to cross the line between right and wrong. Advertising, manipulating people, makes us believe in a fairy tale and a wonderful transformation of Cinderella into a princess from an ugly duckling into a beautiful swan by using the advertised product. Appliances or different detergents from commercials embody the fairy tale «The wave of the wand» — because all the economic problems solve themselves. A semi-finished products to the consumer advertising promises a cloth on the ground. Clothes, water, cigarettes, products promise us happiness, success, beauty and youth — that is a dream come true. And many people believe the advertising, because they want to believe.
Not the last role in the formation of trust in advertising played by actors. And properly selected movie hero helps make advertising not only more entertaining and interesting, but also effective. For example, the fat man from the same beer commercials or advertising of Emma Petrovna «Comet». Perfectly matched the actors — and the movie became popularly loved. But casting must be approached not only from the standpoint of the director, but also psychologically. I want to stay on gender stereotypes in the selection of actors for advertising.
«A content analysis (content analysis — a systematic method of fixation of the content items in the material, in particular, revealing random and non-random elements) commercials on television showed that the creators of the advertisement, depicting men and women, gender stereotypes are widely used. Therefore, the range of occupations for men is three times wider than that of women. Rollers used traditional image of masculinity, pointing out that it is necessary to do in order to become a real man «(Sh.Bern, gender psychology).
Nowadays, most female rollers primarily serves two roles: mother and homemaker and sex object. By itself, the woman has not the slightest importance, it is the product of man’s perception, that is, the projection of the feelings that she can impress the man, causing him to act this way and not otherwise. Women are in the majority in every way support its role as a sex symbol, trying to attract attention and to please a man.
«As a rule, demonstrated by a woman works on two levels: as erotic object for the characters on-screen story, and as erotic object for the audience — in the AC voltage between the views on either side of the screen … Male same character, in accordance with the principle of prevailing ideology and in support of its material structures, can not be subject to sexual objectification «(L.Malvi, Anthology of gender theory).
Indeed, the commercials, in which openly sexy man demonstrates very little. As an example, ad coffee «MAXWELL HOUSE» and «COCA-COLA Light», which featured men with bare torsos, or video for a beer «Capital», where Andrei Chernyshev, a young man played a sexy, beautiful, but not burdened by intellect. This work allowed him to beat him in the competition Promotional image of the year. His victory — proof that attractive men are no less interesting to women, to men than women, but stereotypes do not allow to actively exploit the sexuality of men. Therefore, these videos — an exception to the rule.
But sexuality of women operated continuously for advertising any product category from feminine hygiene products and underwear to insurance and banking services. This is due to the fact that the woman in advertising has always attracted attention. Men — because man is nice to see a beautiful woman’s body, and the attention of women — because it is an opportunity to compare themselves with the recognized sex symbol, and can be gleaned from advertising a way to achieve more attractive. Just do not forget that in some cases, a woman may serve as a way-vampire, distracting the viewer from the advertised product. Especially if you own the advertised product or service is badly combined with nude or semi-nude model. That is, in advertising underwear or «hot line» female sexuality is relevant, can not be said, for example, real estate advertising or banking services. There is a brisk «trade body.» At this point, of course, it is lower than it was, say, five years ago, but still ….
Here are a few examples of our advertising once again to demonstrate how it operated male and female characters.
Girl in white skirt meticulously looked at herself in the mirror …. Not all of myself — just, sorry, neat ass. Then she took a sanitary napkin, poured it in ink — and swung his fist banged on it with a white glove. The glove was drowned! I think that’s so special? We have long been accustomed to television advertising sweet girls as their mother tongue. But many Russian women believe that such advertising offends them. But free and uncomplexed Swede already expressed their indignation. However, a slightly different reason: they insulted … the blue color of the liquid in the pads. They think that if they advertise goods for women, then do not be ashamed of their identity. And they got their way: their television impermeability pads and tampons will be demonstrated by means pink or red paint «(Yu.Nikolaeva, Arguments and Facts, 322, 1999).
Recall, the camera lingered on her waist, slid down her thighs, darted up again — showed the shoulders and graceful slender neck … The skin is smooth, the color peach. The camera pulled away, showing very correct, almost the perfect female body. For those who do not remember — this is advertising of coffee «Nescafe Gold». Thus, many products are promoted in our market. Studies have shown that Russian television is only 35% advertising addressed directly to women, while the commercials featuring women occupy about 60% of the advertising stream. Moreover, the volume of advertising addressed to women, may be reduced, but the use of sexuality of the female image remained the same. At the same time, according to the Association of Journalists, 10% of commercials shall not informative, meaning, namely the erotic load. As explained by Andrew Razenkov, director of advertising, erotic female image in advertising designed primarily to young men: the desire for a beautiful woman entwined in their minds with the desire for the product, which it represents. Although erotization can have the opposite effect: remembered curvy girl, and not a commodity. In addition, some memory emerges the story of Adam and Eve.
But in advertising products, especially such as chocolate bars or fast food such as McDonalds, efficient working man’s image. This is due to the fact that women frills, aestheticism, shy, eating listlessly, besides almost every woman will make counting calories. Men eat «delicious» and appetizing. Here again there are animal instincts: food advertising should cause the appetite, not erotic fantasies.
But in the advertising of soft drinks more it impacts the image of women as sweet soda is designed primarily for teens. And they just First love, first courtship. Therefore, the image of a girl, even dressed in dutuyu jacket — still an erotic image.
Thus, the choice of the main criterion in the selection of the sex appeal of actors linked to the fact that the instinctive association — the most direct route to the heart of man. Advertising, selling a particular product, seeks release of unconscious sexual desires. own goods who need a little himself. People buy or function for which it was created, or a part of the imaginary benefits which are stated in the advertisement.